Tuesday, December 4, 2012
Supervision Via Video-counseling
Mark P. Eades, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro
What was the purpose of this literature review?
This literature review examines what articles have been written on using video conferencing in supervision. This review critiques current literature and identifies areas for further research.
Major findings or points:
Video conferencing has the potential to link counselors in remote places to skilled supervisors over the internet, allowing supervisees the ability to reflect on, adjust, and refine their counseling skills in the hopes of becoming better at their craft. This is true for many supervisees in a variety of disciplines. Teachers, nurse practitioners, psychiatrists, and counselors alike who have experienced videoconferencing supervision report many positive aspects of their experiences. They enjoy the freedom to schedule supervision at their work site, the ability to create a strong working alliance with their supervisors, and they felt that video-supervision promoted autonomous functioning and personal growth. Most authors who write on video mediated supervision use these positive findings to forecast video-supervision as a means of connecting isolated counselors to qualified supervisors, creating a means of making the supervision process available to counselors across the country and throughout the world.
The technological problems associated with using video cameras have proven to be the biggest hurdle in advancing video supervision. In every article written on using video in supervision, participants and authors commented that they didn’t feel prepared to operate, adjust, or fix current hardware or software. This was by far the biggest frustration voiced by supervisors and supervisees; when technical problems arose it was enough to ruin entire supervision sessions. Supervisees commented that even small technical glitches would lead to stifled interactions with supervisors, causing supervisees to hold back on emotional conversations associated with working with clients and instead focus on only factual information when in supervision. Even lawmakers are weary of counselors’ inability to work with video systems, as 19 states currently have laws in place forbidding the use of video-supervision, citing inadequate education and preparation of supervisors as the reason for enforcing such laws.
What does this research mean for counseling practice, settings, and/or training?
When all of this information is taken together, it would appear that creating and providing trainings in using video in supervision is the main roadblock before true advances in the field can be made. When supervisors feel confident that they can successfully operate video-supervision technology, not only will video supervision sessions run more smoothly, but state lawmakers will have to revisit their current stand on the subject. Future researchers could focus on this area, pulling information from the video production education literature to create informed educational trainings for supervisors and testing their effectiveness. Once proper training is established, then revisiting the idea of testing the effectiveness of video-supervision can more logically be executed.
Video supervision, video conferencing, technology in counseling, video counseling supervision
For Further Reading:
Conn, S. R., Roberts, R. L., & Powell, B. M. (2009). Attitudes and satisfaction with a hybrid model of counseling supervision. Educational Technology & Society, 12, 298-306.
Dymond, S. K., Renzaglia, A., Halle, J. W., Chadsey, J., & Bentz, J. L. (2008). An evaluation of videoconferencing as a supportive technology for practicum supervision. Teacher Education and Special Education, 31, 243-256.
Gammon, D., Sorlie, T., Bergvik, S., & Hoifodt, T. S. (1998). Psychotherapy supervision conducted via videoconferencing: A qualitative study of users’ experiences. Nord J Psychiatry, 52, 411-421.
Marrow, C. E., Hollyoake, K., Hamer, D., & Kenrick, C. (2002). Clinical supervision using video- conferencing technology: A reflective account, Journal of Nursing Management, 10, 275-282.
McAdams, C. R., & Wyatt, K. L. (2010). The regulation of technology assisted distance counseling and supervision in the United States: An analysis of current and extent, trends, and implications. Counselors Education and Supervision, 49, 179- 192.
Olson, M. M., Russell, C. S., & White, M. B. (2008). Technological implications for clinical supervision and practice. The Clinical Supervisor, 20, 201-215.
Van Horn, S. D. (2001). Computer technology and the 21st century school counselor. Professional School Counseling, 5, 124-130.
Wright, J., & Griffiths, F. (2010). Reflective practice at a distance: Using technology in counseling supervision. Reflective Practice, 11, 693-703.